Carboniferous/Permian (PALEZEOIC ERA)-Age of Coral Fossil; Genus Gshelia has been found in the Philippines.
Jurassic (MEOZOIC ERA)- fossil of first mammals (armoured fish with outer jawbones), insects and reptiles found in the Philippines; fossil records in Mindoro yielded 25 genera of ammonites (related to the genera of bivalves and belembites [related to fish and octopi]).
Cretaceous (MESOZOIC ERA)- Paleocene forests have diversified into lowland, lower montane, swamp, mangrove, and beach forests. The dominant plants were dipterocarps, nipa palms, Calophyllum (plomaria), screw pine (Pandanus), nito (climbing fern), and fishtail palm (Caryota).
Volcanic and opbiotic terraces of Bicol, Leyte, and Eastern Mindanao are formed from the subduction and rotating Philipine Sea Plate beneath the Indian-Australian Plate (oldest components of the Archipelago).
Paleocene (TERTIARY ERA)- East to West spreading of the Western Philippine Sea Floor. The Philippine Belt moved away from mainland China towards the Pacific Ocean, Borneo in the Indonesian archipelago moves eastward. Generally of great tectonic activity, Major Philippine islands have began their slow evolution towards their current state during this era.
Pacific plate drifted in a counter clockwise and northwesterly direction. The movement set the same motion for the adjoining Philippine Sea Plate. Proto-Philippine Island Arc began transport along the edge of the Philippine Sea Plate.
Eocene (TERTIARY ERA)- Central Cordillera and other western volcanic islands began to form what is now known as the western seascape of the Philippines. Generally of great tectonic activity, Major Philippine islands began their slow evolution towards their current state during this era.
Micro-continental terranes (Northern Palawan, Mindoo and Zamboanga) also rimmed the margins of Southeastern Eurasia.
The Philippine Mobile Belt broke off from the equatorial arc system and began its transport along the leading western edge of the Philippine Plate.
The Philippines is divided among 3 separate island arcs: Luzon Arc, Halmahera Arc and the Cordillera & Sangihe Arcs.
Zambales Ranges attached itself to Luzon; formation of Celebes Sea Basin south of Zamboanga due to seafloor spreading. Volcanic terranes of Luizon, Visayas, and Central Mindanao were built from the magnetic activity along the edge of the Philippine Sea.